President Hosni Mubarak left Egypt and almost never returned – June 26, 1995

Article author: Miky Weinberg – Owner of the Tarantula Technologies Ltd and Octagon Security Ltd Companies.

Former Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak survived at least six assassination attempts during his tenure. The assassination attempt that took place in Ethiopia on June 26, 1995, is the most famous and the most dangerous of all the attempts he experienced because President Mubarak left Egypt for the summit conference of the Organization of African Unity held in the Ethiopian capital Addis Ababa and he almost never returned alive. In the other five attempts, the Egyptian intelligence and security forces the president’s security managed to prevent the assassin from reaching the stage of execution, in contrast to the assassination attempt in Addis Ababa in which the assassin’s opponent realized the execution stage and shot at the president’s convoy. There are countries in the world, such as Egypt, where the leader (president or prime minister) is targeted by hostile elements during the entire term of office. The same parties, such as the Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt, will try to assassinate the leader again and again until they succeed.


The attacker’s viewpoint- the preparatory actions of the Muslim Brotherhood to carry out the assassination:

The Muslim Brotherhood decided to try to assassinate President Mubarak one more time. After the organization failed in all attempts to assassinate Mubarak on Egyptian soil, its leaders realized that the security circles around the president in Egypt were very strong and almost impenetrable, so a decision was made to try to assassinate Mubarak outside of Egyptian soil. The organization’s intelligence gathering revealed that Mubarak was planning an official trip to Ethiopia on June 26, 1995, and decided to begin planning another assassination attempt. The organization worked to recruit collaborators from organizations and officials from at least one other country outside of Ethiopia that shares the interest in assassinating Mubarak (Mubarak claimed it was Sudan) and other factors in Ethiopia itself. The collection of information about Mubarak’s planned trip included the location of the airport in Addis Ababa, locating the routes of travel that allow departure from the airport, and marking necessary transitions on the possible routes. With reference to the route and the point on the route where the assassination attempt was carried out, it can be assumed that the Muslim Brotherhood organization had early and reliable information about the arrival time of the president’s plane at Addis Ababa airport and the route of travel from there to the first destination of the visit. The organization had existing information about the fact that Mubarak was traveling in an armored Mercedes-type vehicle and that the full convoy included a front vehicle and a rear security vehicle. Analyzing all the information, the Muslim Brotherhood realized that Mubarak’s security level outside of Egyptian soil was significantly lower and therefore the chance of success in the assassination attempt was higher.


The Assassination Plan:

To succeed in an assassination, the assassin’s adversary’s chosen course of action must match the available reliable information. The Muslim Brotherhood decided to assassinate Mubarak during his ride in the armored vehicle, so they had to choose means of warfare that could stop the vehicle’s journey and even penetrate the level of its armor – the means of warfare chosen included rifles and RPGs. It was decided that in order to increase the chance of hitting the vehicle accurately, it is better that the shooting be carried out when the vehicle is stationary, therefore the course of action included marking a suitable point on the exit route from the airport where the convoy is supposed to travel relatively slowly and there are residential buildings on the sides of the road. In order to deal with the security vehicle accompanying the president and including a number of armed security personnel, it was decided that the assassination would be carried out by at least 8-9 operatives. Five days before the date of the assassination, June 26, 1995, the organization rented a house located near the point on the axis where it was planned to carry out the assassination and used it to store all the weapons and to organize the assassins for the execution phase.

The final plan stipulated that one of the assassins’ vehicles would block the convoy at a designated point on the route and immediately after that the assassins would open fire at the front vehicle and another vehicle with more assassins would arrive on the way to the President’s vehicle and shoot at it and at the escort vehicle in which the President’s security personnel were traveling.

Photos of Mubarak arriving at the airport, the armored vehicle, and the weapons that the assassins chose:


June 26, 1995 – The execution of the assassination:

President Mubarak’s plane landed at the Addis Ababa airport in the early hours of the morning. The president’s security unit was already ready for reception, including the president’s armored vehicle that is flown almost everywhere he goes outside of Egyptian soil. All the participants in the reception were already standing in an orderly manner next to the stairs. The front door of the plane opened and President Mubarak got out and started going down the stairs. He shook hands with all those who greeted him and entered the armored car. Egyptian Foreign Minister Amr Moussa who accompanied President Mubarak got into the front car and the security personnel got into the rear escort car. The President’s motorcade started driving towards the place where the conference was held. After about a hundred meters of driving on the axis, a blue pickup truck appeared in front of the vehicle in front, hit it, and blocked it. The President’s motorcade had to stop in its place. At least 3 assassins got out of the blue car and started shooting at the front car and the president’s car. At the same time, another vehicle of the assassins maneuvered towards the president’s vehicle, and at least 5-6 more assassins also started shooting at the president’s vehicle and the rear security vehicle. The assassins opened a powerful barrage of fire that put the level of protection of the President’s vehicle to a real test. The president’s security guards quickly exited from the rear escort vehicle and began returning fire at the assassins. President Mubarak instructed his driver to turn around and return to the airport. The driver reacted quickly and began a maneuver and a fast drive that took President Mubarak away from the assassination site. The assassins who were not hit by the security guards stopped shooting and retreated.











Discovered details and the result of the assassination attempt:

President Mubarak announced after the assassination that the person who carried out the assassination attempt was the Muslim Brotherhood with the help of elements from Sudan and Ethiopia who had a common interest in ending his term as president of Egypt in an unnatural way.

The assassination operation was carried out by about nine armed assassins who used two vehicles as planned. The barrage of fire that was fired mainly at the President’s vehicle included about five hundred rifle bullets. The assassins did not fire an RPG during the attack.

The local security forces located the assassins’ rented house and found inside a suitcase containing 2 RPG launchers and other guns.

At least one bullet hit the windshield of the armored Mercedes but did not penetrate its armor.

At least three assassins were killed during the attack.

Three local police officers accompanying the convoy were killed.

President Hosni Mubarak was not harmed in the assassination attempt and returned to Egypt on his plane and thus was again saved from one of the assassination attempts that occurred against him during his tenure.


The principles of close protection that prevented President Mubarak from being harmed:

An armored vehicle:  The use of an armored vehicle with a level of protection that succeeds in preventing the penetration of rifle bullets and even more, constitutes a central defensive security ring in protecting the life of the principal. The armored Mercedes saved the life of President Mubarak.

The principal’s driver: a professional and operational driver who knew how to react quickly shortly after the beginning of the assassination, will manage to get the president out of the threat zone and in combination with the armored vehicle will save his life. President Mubarak’s driver did not lose his cool, reacted quickly and decisively, and saved the president’s life.

The structure of the convoy: The convoy of a president who has been through several assassination attempts should have more security vehicles with an emphasis on adding a front security vehicle. The fact that the driver of the president’s car was careful to keep a tactical distance from the vehicle in front allowed him to maneuver the vehicle backward and make a quick trip back to the airport. The rear escort vehicle with the security personnel is positioned correctly and allows the security team to detect the beginning of the attack, quickly unload from the vehicle, and respond by shooting at the assassins.

The advance vehicle: Nowadays close protection units make sure to send an advance vehicle before the personal convoy whose job it is to detect anomalies on the planned route of travel long enough before the security convoy passes. President Mubarak’s security unit did not send a vehicle to do an advance on the route.


To summarize:

An organization like the Muslim Brotherhood is capable of planning a high-level assassination operation, and so it was in the assassination attempt in question. The organization’s only mistake was thinking that rifle bullets would penetrate the armor level of the armored vehicle. Interestingly, although the organization armed itself with RPG launchers they were not actually used – it is possible that the quick reaction of the president’s security guards prevented an RPG from being fired at the armored vehicle. There is no doubt that the organization correctly understood that the president’s security level outside of Egypt is significantly lower. President Mubarak’s armored vehicle and driver saved his life. The president’s bodyguards responded with great professionalism and courage undoubtedly made it difficult for the assassins to complete the mission successfully and even caused their rapid retreat.


Remember that security should be maintained everywhere and at any time!!!


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